Case Report We present the case of a 71-year-old female patient with past medical history remarkable for a pancreatic head cystic lesion diagnosed in 2009. It was a 24mm multilocular cystic lesion with a central scar, that remained asymptomatic and stable in size until 2015, when follow-up was lost. In 2019 the patient developed new onset jaundice, choluria and acolia. An abdominal ultrasound was performed and revealed a 47x45mm heterogeneous mass in the pancreatic head, associated with de-novo common bile duct dilatation (CBD, 17mm in the liver hilum) (Fig. 1). Figure 1. Abdominal ultrasound: heterogeneous pancreatic head mass. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed a multilocular pancreatic head cystic lesion, measuring 60x70x57mm (Fig. 2) and apparently communicating with the main pancreatic duct (MPD). There was also CBD and intrahepatic bile duct dilation. Figure 2. MRCP: multilocular pancreatic head cystic lesion, apparently communicating with the MPD, and CBD and intrahepatic bile duct dilation. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) documented a predominantly microcystic lesion located in the head of the pancreas, measuring 53x46mm, with a few macrocysts and pseudo-solid areas, compressing the CBD and the superior mesenteric vein, and without vascular invasion or Wirsung dilatation (Fig. 3). Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the macrocyst and of a pseudo-solid area was performed. Cyst fluid biochemistry analysis revealed a high amilase level (54085 UI/L) and a normal CEA (2 ng/mL). Figure 3. EUS: predominantly microcystic pancreatic lesion located in the head of the pancreas, with a few macrocysts and pseudo solid areas. Quiz Discussion EUS-FNA cytology showed cuboidal cells, […]
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2019 – ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND IN ONCOLOGY 2015 – EUS-FNA & THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES
Case Report A 79-year-old woman, with no relevant past medical history was admitted due to an idiopathic acute pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed a focal main pancreatic duct (MPD) stricture in the pancreatic head with moderate upstream dilatation (7 mm), as well as prominence of secondary branches. In the uncinate process, a 17 mm cystic lesion with no apparent communication with the MPD was also described. This acute episode had a good clinical course and the patient was discharged. One month later, she underwent another MRCP that showed no evidence of the aforementioned stricture but pointed a 9 mm dilatation of the MPD at the level of the pancreatic head. Serum CA 19.9 and CEA were normal. Four months later, she was admitted due to a new episode of mild acute pancreatitis. At that time, she was referred to our institution for endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). This exam revealed a lesion in the pancreatic head along with an atrophic pancreatic parenchyma, with lobularity, hyperechoic foci and stranding. Elastography and contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (SonoVue®) were performed. EUS revealed in the pancreatic head a cystic dilatation of the MPD (15×15 mm), with a hyperechogenic solid component and digitiform projections that conditioned almost complete occlusion of the duct (Figure 1). Figure 1. EUS: cystic dilatation of the MPD (15×15 mm) in the pancreatic head, with a hyperechogenic solid component and digitiform projections that conditioned almost complete occlusion of the duct. The solid component had a “hard” pattern on elastography (strain ration 18.79; Figure 2) and revealed an heterogenous […]
Ultrasound Imaging Prize Deadline: April 30 2019
Case Report A 65-year-old woman presented with new onset diabetes. Hes past medical history was remarkable for headache, anxiety and vasomotor symptoms for the last 3 years. Abdominal ultrasound followed by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 14-cm enhanced heterogeneous intra-abdominal mass, with cystic areas, in contact with the posterior wall of the gastric fundus (Figure 1). Figure 1. Abdominopelvic CT (axial and coronal view): a 14-cm enhanced heterogeneous intra-abdominal mass, with cystic areas, in contact with the posterior wall of the gastric fundus. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was performed and showed a giant well-defined rounded hypoechogenic mass, without cleavage plane between the mass and the gastric wall. This was a very heterogeneous mass, with anechoic areas, suggestive of cystic transformation. Its size exceeded the endoscopic field (Figure 2-4). Figure 2. EUS (transgastric view): a giant well-defined rounded hypoechogenic and heterogeneous mass, with anechoic areas, suggestive of cystic transformation. Quiz Discussion EUS-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) using a 25G needle with rapid on site cytological examination (ROSE) was performed. Cytological analysis performed on the cell block demonstrated irregular clusters of cells with finely eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and pronounced anisokaryosis with large and irregular nuclei (Figure 5). Immunohistochemistry was positive for vimentin and synaptophysin and negative for CD117, S100 and CD34; Ki67<3%. Figure 5. Cithology (Papanicolaou, 100x): irregular clusters of cells with finely eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and pronounced anisokaryosis with large and irregular nuclei. Toward these findings, 24-hour urine fractionated metanephrines were measured and were elevated (normetanephrine 5832pg/mL and metanephrine 11738pg/mL) and […]
Case Report A 38 year-old female patient, with no relevant previous medical history, was referred to our unit for evaluation of recurrent left iliac fossa pain, without associated symptoms. No blood test abnormalities were found. Physical examination, pelvic and abdomen ultrasound were normal. Colonoscopy was then performed identifying, at 15 cm from the anal verge, a 3cm bulge in the lumen covered by normal mucosa. These findings were suggestive of a subepithelial lesion (Figure 1). Figure 1. Colonoscopy: 3cm subepithelial lesion, at 15 cm from the anal verge. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a 30mm hypoechoic heterogeneous mass, with no precise limits and with all layers involved (Figure 2). Figure 2. EUS: 30mm hypoechoic heterogeneous mass, with no precise limits and with all layers involved. Quiz Discussion FNA (22G needle) of the lesion was performed and cytologic examination revealed the combination of endometrial glands and stroma. These findings were compatible with endometriosis. Pelvic MRI (Figure 3) and endovaginal ultrasound found no other endometriotic lesions in the pelvis. According to patient preference, hormonal therapy was started and symptoms remission was achieved. Figure 3. Pelvic MRI: coronal (left) and transverse (right) planes. Rectosigmoid endometriosis, with no other endometriotic lesions in the pelvis. Subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are commonly incidentally discovered during routine upper endoscopy and colonoscopy. In the colon, subepithelial lesions mostly occur in the rectum and cecum, but lipomas (the most frequent colonic subepithelial lesion) may be seen in any part of the colon.1 Lipomas are usually yellowish, […]
Case Report An 81-years-old female presented to our department with obstructive jaundice (dark urine, pale stools) and a non-specific clinical picture of nausea and appetite loss. Laboratory tests demonstrated a mild leukocytosis with neutrophilia (13.000 cell/mm3; 86%), conjugated hyperbilirrubinemia (7.7 mg/dL), increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (10xULN and 8xULN, respectively), slightly increased alkaline phosphatase (2xULN), increased lactate dehydrogenase (10xULN) and serum lipase (3xULN). CA 19.9 was 342 U/mL (Ref value < 37 U/mL). On physical examination, there was no evidence of peripheral lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Abdominal ultrasound (Figure 1-A) revealed a diffuse enlargement of the pancreatic gland. The pancreatic parenchyma was hipoechoic and surrounded by an enhanced peripancreatic fat layer. Also the extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic bile ducts were dilated. The examiner did not notice any dilation of the main pancreatic duct. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computerized tomography (CT, Figure 1-B) revealed a marked homogeneous enlargement of the pancreas. The cephalic portion measured 7cm (antero-posterior diameter), more marked in the uncinate process, without any clear well-defined mass/lesion. There was a dilation of the extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic bile ducts. There was a moderate amount of ascites, especially peri-hepatic, peri-splenic, peri-pancreatic and in the parieto-colic gutter. In addition, there was a significant edema of the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal wall and, bilaterally pleural effusions were noted. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) (Figure 1-C and 1-D) identified an enlarged homogeneous hypoechoic pancreas, without any well-defined lesion, no dilation of the main pancreatic duct, no peripancreatic or celiac enlarged lymph nodes. Using a 19C EchoTip Pro-Core@ HD […]
Realizou-se nos dias 6 e 7 de dezembro o 15º Curso Teórico Prático de Ultrassonografia para Gastrenterologistas no Hospital Amato Lusitano, em Castelo Branco sob a coordenação da Dra. Ana Caldeira e Dr. Eduardo Pereira. Veja algumas fotografias do curso.
Case Report A 26-year-old male with history of sleeve gastrectomy (4 years ago) was referred to the Gastroenterology outpatient clinic due to abdominal discomfort. On physical examination a hard, nontender, large abdominal mass was found. Abdominal CT scan revealed a 210×117 mm contrast-enhanced solid mass centered in the mesentery (Fig. 1a and 1b). There were no signs of bowel obstruction or evidence of lymphadenopathy. Figure 1. Abdominal CT (a – coronal view; b – axial view): contrast-enhanced solid mass centered in the mesentery. After multidisciplinary discussion, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with tissue acquisition was performed. The cranial portion of the abdominal mass was observed through the distal second portion of the duodenum. EUS demonstrated a hypoechoic heterogeneous mass with ill-defined borders (Fig. 2a). Real-time EUS elastography revealed a heterogeneous, predominantly blue (hard) pattern (Fig. 2b). Through the duodenum we performed EUS-guided fine needle core biopsy (EUS-FNB) using a 25G needle (Acquire™, Boston Scientific®). Figure 2. EUS (transduodenal view): hypoechoic heterogeneous mass with ill-defined borders; a – EUS – elastography: predominantly blue (hard) pattern; b – EUS-FNB. Quiz Discussion The histology specimen showed the presence of fusiform cells, without atypia (Fig. 3a and 3b). Imunohistochemical staining was positive for β-catenin (Fig. 3c) and negative for c-KIT, DOG-1, AE1/AE3, CD34, S100 protein, alfa-actin and MDM2. Figure 3. Patholohy: a and b – Presence of fusiform cells, without atypia (4x and 20x, respectively); c – imunohistochemical staining was positive for β-catenin (20x). The patient underwent surgical resection of the tumor that included segmental enterectomy […]